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Pancoast gives an extensive report of Millie-Christine, who had been extensively exhibited in Europe and the United States. They were born of slave parents in Columbus County, N.C., July 11, 1851; the mother, who had borne 8 children before, was a stout negress of thirty-two, with a large pelvis. The presentation was first by the stomach and afterward by the breech. These twins were united at the sacra by a cartilaginous or possibly osseous union. They were exhibited in Paris in 1873, and provoked as much discussion there as in the United States. Physically, Millie was the weaker, but had the stronger will and the dominating spirit. They menstruated regularly from the age of thirteen. One from long habit yielded instinctively to the other's movements, thus preserving the necessary harmony. They ate separately, had distinct thoughts, and carried on distinct conversations at the same time. They experienced hunger and thirst generally simultaneously, and defecated and urinated nearly at the same times. One, in tranquil sleep, would be wakened by a call of nature of the other. Common sensibility was experienced near the location of union. They were intelligent and agreeable and of pleasant appearance, although slightly under size; they sang duets with pleasant voices and accompanied themselves with a guitar; they walked, ran, and danced with apparent ease and grace. Christine could bend over and lift Millie up by the bond of union.
A recent example of the pygopagus type was Rosa-Josepha Blazek, born in Skerychov, in Bohemia, January 20, 1878. These twins had a broad bony union in the lower part of the lumbar region, the pelvis being obviously completely fused. They had a common urethral and anal aperture, but a double vaginal orifice, with a very apparent septum. The sensation was distinct in each, except where the pelves joined. They were exhibited in Paris in 1891, being then on an exhibition tour around the world. Rosa was the stronger, and when she walked or ran forward she drew her sister with her, who must naturally have reversed her steps. They had independent thoughts and separate minds; one could sleep while the other was awake. Many of their appetites were different, one preferring beer, the other wine; one relished salad, the other detested it, etc. Thirst and hunger were not simultaneous. Baudoin describes their anatomic construction, their mode of life, and their mannerisms and tastes in a quite recent article. Fig. 42 is a reproduction of an early photograph of the twins, and Fig. 43 represents a recent photograph of these "Bohemian twins," as they are now called.
The latest record we have of this type of monstrosity is that given by Tynberg to the County Medical Society of New York, May 27, 1895. The mother was present with the remarkable twins in her arms, crying at the top of their voices. These two children were born at midnight on April 15th. Tynberg remarked that he believed them to be distinct and separate children, and not dependent on a common arterial system; he also expressed his intention of separating them, but did not believe the operation could be performed with safety before another year. Jacobi describes in full Tynberg's instance of pygopagus. He says the confinement was easy; the head of one was born first, soon followed by the feet and the rest of the twins. The placenta was single and the cord consisted of two branches. The twins were united below the third sacral vertebrae in such a manner that they could lie alongside of each other. They were females, and had two vaginae, two urethrae four labia minora, and two labia majora, one anus, but a double rectum divided by a septum. They micturated independently but defecated simultaneously. They virtually lived separate lives, as one might be asleep while the other cried, etc.
CLASS V.--While instances of ischiopagi are quite numerous, few have attained any age, and, necessarily, little notoriety. Pare speaks of twins united at the pelves, who were born in Paris July 20, 1570. They were baptized, and named Louis and Louise. Their parents were well known in the rue des Gravelliers. According to Bateman, and also Rueff, in the year 1552 there were born, not far from Oxford, female twins, who, from the description given, were doubtless of the ischiopagus type. They seldom wept, and one was of a cheerful disposition, while the other was heavy and drowsy, sleeping continually. They only lived a short time, one expiring a day before the other. Licetus speaks of Mrs. John Waterman, a resident of Fishertown, near Salisbury, England, who gave birth to a double female monster on October 26, 1664, which evidently from the description was joined by the ischii. It did not nurse, but took food by both the mouths; all its actions were done in concert; it was possessed of one set of genitourinary organs; it only lived a short while. Many people in the region flocked to see the wonderful child, whom Licetus called "Monstrum Anglicum." It is said that at the same accouchement the birth of this monster was followed by the birth of a well-formed female child, who survived. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire quotes a description of twins who were born in France on October 7, 1838, symmetrically formed and united at their ischii. One was christened Marie-Louise, and the other Hortense-Honorine. Their avaricious parents took the children to Paris for exhibition, the exposures of which soon sacrificed their lives. In the year 1841 there was born in the island of Ceylon, of native parents, a monstrous child that was soon brought to Columbo, where it lived only two months. It had two heads and seemed to have duplication in all its parts except the anus and male generative organs. Montgomery speaks of a double child born in County Roscommon, Ireland, on the 24th of July, 1827. It had two heads, two chests with arms complete, two abdominal and pelvic cavities united end to end, and four legs, placed two on either side. It had only one anus, which was situated between the thighs. One of the twins was dark haired and was baptized Mary, while the other was a blonde and was named Catherine. These twins felt and acted independently of each other; they each in succession sucked from the breast or took milk from the spoon, and used their limbs vigorously. One vomited without affecting the other, but the feces were discharged through a common opening.
Goodell speaks of Minna and Minnie Finley, who were born in Ohio and examined by him. They were fused together in a common longitudinal axis, having one pelvis, two heads, four legs, and four arms. One was weak and puny and the other robust and active; it is probable that they had but one rectum and one bladder. Goodell accompanies his description by the mention of several analogous cases. Ellis speaks of female twins, born in Millville, Tenn., and exhibited in New York in 1868, who were joined at the pelves in a longitudinal axis. Between the limbs on either side were to be seen well-developed female genitals, and the sisters had been known to urinate from both sides, beginning and ending at the same time.
Huff details a description of the "Jones twins," born on June 24, 1889, in Tipton County, Indiana, whose spinal columns were in apposition at the lower end. The labor, of less than two hours' duration, was completed before the arrival of the physician. Lying on their mother's back, they could both nurse at the same time. Both sets of genitals and ani were on the same side of the line of union, but occupied normal positions with reference to the legs on either side. Their weight at birth was 12 pounds and their length 22 inches. Their mother was a medium-sized brunette of 19, and had one previous child then living at the age of two; their father was a finely formed man 5 feet 10 inches in height. The twins differed in complexion and color of the eyes and hair. They were publicly exhibited for some time, and died February 19 and 20, 1891, at St. John's Hotel, Buffalo, N.Y. Figure 45 shows their appearance several months after birth.
CLASS VI.--In our sixth class, the first record we have is from the Commentaries of Sigbert, which contains a description of a monstrosity born in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius, who had two heads, two chests with four arms attached, but a single lower extremity. The emotions, affections, and appetites were different. One head might be crying while the other laughed, or one feeding while the other was sleeping. At times they quarreled and occasionally came to blows. This monster is said to have lived two years, one part dying four days before the other, which evinced symptoms of decay like its inseparable neighbor.
Roger of Wendover says that in Lesser Brittany and Normandy, in 1062, there was seen a female monster, consisting of two women joined about the umbilicus and fused into a single lower extremity. They took their food by two mouths but expelled it at a single orifice. At one time, one of the women laughed, feasted, and talked, while the other wept, fasted, and kept a religious silence. The account relates how one of them died, and the survivor bore her dead sister about for three years before she was overcome by the oppression and stench of the cadaver. Batemen describes the birth of a boy in 1529, who had two heads, four ears, four arms, but only two thighs and two legs. Buchanan speaks at length of the famous "Scottish Brothers," who were the cynosure of the eyes of the Court of James III of Scotland. This monster consisted of two men, ordinary in appearance in the superior extremities, whose trunks fused into a single lower extremity. The King took diligent care of their education, and they became proficient in music, languages, and other court accomplishments. Between them they would carry on animated conversations, sometimes merging into curious debates, followed by blows. Above the point of union they had no synchronous sensations, while below, sensation was common to both. This monster lived twenty-eight years, surviving the royal patron, who died June, 1488. One of the brothers died some days before the other, and the survivor, after carrying about his dead brother, succumbed to "infection from putrescence." There was reported to have been born in Switzerland a double headed male monster, who in 1538, at the age of thirty, was possessed of a beard on each face, the two bodies fused at the umbilicus into a single lower extremity. These two twins resembled one another in contour and countenance. They were so joined that at rest they looked upon one another. They had a single wife, with whom they were said to have lived in harmony. In the Gentleman's Magazine about one hundred and fifty years since there was given the portrait and description of a double woman, who was exhibited all over the large cities of Europe. Little can be ascertained anatomically of her construction, with the exception that it was stated that she had two heads, two necks, four arms, two legs, one pelvis, and one set of pelvic organs.
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